Introduction to X-ray

X-rays are highly penetrative electromagnetic waves having wavelength from 1 Ao to 100 Ao. X-rays were discovered in 1895 by Wilhelm Roentgen while working with a discharge tube. He observed the greenish yellow glowing of cathode rays when pressure was reduced and electric  discharge was passed in discharge tube. After a series of experiment he concluded that the highly penetrating rays of unknown nature are produced when a beam of fast moving electrons strikes the solid target such as tungsten. He named these rays as X-rays.

 

Properties of X-rays:

  • X-rays are electromagnetic waves having wavelength from 1 Ao to 100 Ao.
  • They travel with velocity of 3108 m/s in vacuum or air.
  • They can ionize the atom and molecules of matter.
  • X-rays can affect photographic plates.
  • They can ionize gas through they pass.
  • They are charge less waves.
  • They are not deflected by magnetic or electric fields.

Uses of X-rays:

  • It is used to detect the fracture of bones, diseased organs in human body.
  • It is used to destroy growing tumors and various skin diseases.
  • X-ray is used in industry to detect the leaks and for testing the uniformity of different materials.
  • It is used to detect the cracks and leaks in airplanes.
  •  It is used in security purpose to detect the smuggled golds, jewelries and other contraband goods.
  • It is used to research purpose for the study of structure of crystals, arrangement of atoms and molecules in a compound.

 

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