X-rays are highly penetrative electromagnetic waves having wavelength from 1 Ao to 100 Ao. X-rays were discovered in 1895 by Wilhelm Roentgen while working with a discharge tube. He observed the greenish yellow glowing of cathode rays when pressure was reduced and electric discharge was passed in discharge tube. After a series of experiment he concluded that the highly penetrating rays of unknown nature are produced when a beam of fast moving electrons strikes the solid target such as tungsten. He named these rays as X-rays.
Properties of X-rays:
- X-rays are electromagnetic waves having wavelength from 1 Ao to 100 Ao.
- They travel with velocity of 3108 m/s in vacuum or air.
- They can ionize the atom and molecules of matter.
- X-rays can affect photographic plates.
- They can ionize gas through they pass.
- They are charge less waves.
- They are not deflected by magnetic or electric fields.
Uses of X-rays:
- It is used to detect the fracture of bones, diseased organs in human body.
- It is used to destroy growing tumors and various skin diseases.
- X-ray is used in industry to detect the leaks and for testing the uniformity of different materials.
- It is used to detect the cracks and leaks in airplanes.
- It is used in security purpose to detect the smuggled golds, jewelries and other contraband goods.
- It is used to research purpose for the study of structure of crystals, arrangement of atoms and molecules in a compound.