Introduction to Volumetric Analysis

Volumetric analysis is the process of determination of the concentration and strength of an unknown solution with the help of a known standard solution.

Chemical analysis: The resolution of chemical compound into its ultimate and proximate constituent is called chemical analysis.
Chemical analysis can be further divided into two types.

  1.  Qualitative analysis : It is the process of identification of the constituents of the chemical analysis. Example: Salt analysis
  2.  Quantitative analysis: It is the process of determination of the accurate amount of the constituent in the chemical chemical compound. Example: Volumetric analysis

Principle of volumetric analysis

  • The solution having equal normality react with their equal volume.
  •  During volumetric analysis, at equivalence point the normality equation holds true.


It is the process of adding the standard solution to the unknown solution during the volumetric analysis. Titration is carried out in laboratory with the necessary  equipments. The major  components for titration are as follows:

  • Titrant: The standard solution whose strength and amount is known is called titrant. It is generally taken in burette.
  • Titrand: The unknown solution whose strength and concentration is to be determined is called titrand. It is generally taken in a conical flask.

End point: It is the point which  indicates the completion of reaction by changing its color. It is indicated by the indicator.

Equivalence point: It is the theoretical point at which the equivalent amount of of titrand and titrant are added together.  It is also named as theoretical point.

Note: In general, end point is always greater than equivalence point.

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