Hybridization

The phenomena of intermixing of atomic orbital of slightly different energy to form new hybrid orbitals is called hybridization. The hybrid orbital will have equivalent energies and identical shape in equal number.

Characteristics of hybridization:

  • Those orbitals that take part in hybridization have almost equal or small energy difference and identical shape.
  • Both half filled or full filled orbitals take part in hybridization.
  • The electron density of a hybrid orbital is concentrated in one lobe.
  • Hybrid orbitals do not have pure property of s, p or d orbitals.
  • The hybrid orbital has electron density concentrated on the side of the nucleus.

Types of hybridization:

1. s-p hybridization: In this type of hybridization, there is a mixing of one s-orbital and one p-orbital. This hybridization is also called diagonal hybridization. Each s-p hybrid orbital has 50% s- character and 50% p-character.

s-p hybridization

2. sp2 hybridization: In this type of hybridization, there is a mixing of one s-orbital and two p-orbital. This hybridization is also called trigonal hybridization. Each sp2 hybrid orbital has 33.33% s- character and 66.66% p-character.

sp2 hybridization

3. sp3 hybridization: In this type of hybridization, there is a mixing of one s-orbital and three p-orbital. This hybridization is also called tetragonal hybridization. Each sp3 hybrid orbital has 25% s- character and 75% p-character.

sp3 hybridization

Method of finding the type of hybridization

Count the total number of sigma bond as well as pair of electron.
now, If the molecule has:
2 sigma bond th S-P hybridization
3 sigma bond = sp2 hybridization
4 sigma bond = sp3
5 sigma bond: sp3d
6sigma bond = sp3d2

Hybridization can also be calculated by the formula: X = (v+m – C+A)/2
Where,
X = Hybrid orbital
V = Number of valence electron present in central atom
M = number of monovalent along the peripheral atom
c = charge on cation
A = Charge on anion

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