Chemical Properties of Benzene

Electrophilic Substitution Reactions

1. Nitration

Benzene reacts with nitrating mixture HNO3 + H2SO4 at 60 degree celcius to give nitrobenzene .



When Benzene is heated with concentrated sulphuric acid at 120 degree Celsius ,benzene sulphonic acid is obtained.Sulphonation

3. Halogenation

When benzene react with cholorine in presense of lewis acid like AlCl3 it gives chlorobenzene .Halogenation

However iodine doesn’t react with benzene.

4. Friedel-Craft Alkylation

When benzene reacts with alkyl halide in presence of lewis acid like AlCl3 to give Alkyl Benzene . Since there is introduction of Alkyl group it is known as alkylation .Alkylation5. Acylation

When benzene is reacted with acid chloride like acetyl chloride in presence of lewis acid like AlCl3, ketone is obtained .Acylation

6. Combustion of Benzene

Benzene burns with sooty flame to form water and carbon dioxide. However on complete oxidation it gives CO2 + H2O.Oxidation

3.Addition Reaction

  • Formation of Ozonide: Here at first benzene triozonide is formed and it gives glyoxal on treatment with water in presence of zinc .

Ozonide Formation

  • Formation of BHC: In presence of sunlight benzene react with chlorine to form benzene hexachloride which is powerful insecticide and is sold under name lindane as 666.BHC Formation


  • Formation of Cyclohexane:  When benzene react with hydrogen under pressure in presence of finely divided metal like nickle , platinum etc. as a catalyst at 150-200 degrees Celsius to form cyclohexane.

Formation of Cyclohexane

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3 Responses to “Chemical Properties of Benzene”


    formation of DDT

  2. Jamesh Raika

    In site explained very well..

  3. juma malindo

    How can you identify whether the substituent group is activator or deactivator ?