We come across many physical quantities in our daily life. Some of the physical quantities need magnitude and direction for their proper representation while some does not. These quantities may have different value in different direction. So, the determination of nature of Physical quantity is very important for the precise study in Physics.
Scalar quantities: Those physical quantities which require only magnitude for their representation are called scalars quantities. In other words, it is a measurement which require only amount without specifying the direction. Physical quantities like distance, mass, time need only magnitude for their proper representation.
Vector quantities: Those physical quantities like force, velocity, momentum require magnitude as well as direction for their representation are called vector quantities. In other words, it is measurement that indicates both an amount and precision.
Differences between Scalars and Vector Quantities:
Types of vectors:
Unit vector: A vector having magnitude of unity (having length one) is called unit vector.
Equal Vectors: Vectors having same magnitude and direction are called equal vectors.
Null vector: Vectors having magnitude equal to zero is called null vector.
Collinear vectors: The vectors passing through the same straight line are called collinear vectors.
Coplanar vectors: Vectors lying is the same plane are called coplanar vector.
Orthogonal vectors: Those vector having angle between them equals to 90º are called orthogonal vectors.
Resultant vector: The sum of two or more vectors is called resultant vector.