Sub Atomic Particles

Those particles which are present within the atoms of an element are called sub-atomic particles. Examples: proton, neutron, electron etc. There are more than 35 sub atomic particles in an atom. Out of these subatomic particles proton, neutron and electron are called fundamental particles.


  • Discovered by J.J. Thomson.
  • It is defined as the subatomic particle with unit negative charge and mass which is equal to 1/1837th of that of hydrogen gas.
  • Charge of electron: 1.6 × 10-19 column
  • Mass of electron: 9.1× 10-31 kg


  • Discovered by E. Goldstein.
  • Proton can be defined as the sub-atomic particle having unit positive charge and mass equal to 1 atom of hydrogen.
  • Charge of Proton: 1.6 × 10-19 column
    Mass of Proton: 1.6 × 10-27Kg


  • Discovered by Chadwick.
  • When a beryllium atom is bombarded with alpha particles, a highly penetrating particle with zero charge is obtained called neutron.
  • Neutron is a sub atomic particle having no charge. It’s mass is nearly equal to that of one atom of hydrogen.
  • Mass of neutron = 1.67 × 10-27Kg
  • Charge of neutron = 0

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