Introduction to Reaction Mechanism

When a chemical reaction takes place between two or more chemical species, new products are formed. This change is represented by the chemical equation. The reactant normally consists of two species:
Substrate: The major reactant which is attracted by other chemical species is called substrate.
Reagent: The species which attack the substrate in order to get the major product is called reagent.

The product part consists of two species:

Product: It is produced in higher quantity and has major role in chemical reaction. It is the desired species to be obtained while carrying out reactions.

Byproduct: It is produced in trace amount and has no major role in chemical reaction.

Symbolically:

Substrate + Reagent → Product + Byproduct

Consider a reaction consisting these four parts as follows:
$$\ce{$\underset{\text{Substrate}}{\ce{H2SO4}}$ + $\underset{\text{Reagent}}{\ce{2NaOH}}$ ->$\underset{\text{Product}}{\ce{Na2SO4}}$ + $\underset{\text{Biproduct}}{\ce{2H2O}}$}$$

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