Water is the most common and extensively used compounds in the world. It contains hydrogen and oxygen atoms in the ratio 2:1. It is an essential constituent for all the living beings. Lavoisier proved that water consists of hydrogen and oxygen.
Water has three physical state namely solid, liquid and gases. It can dissolve most of the ionic compounds and hence it is also called as universal solvent. Nearly 70% of earth surface is covered with water.
Molecular formula: H2O
Molecular weight: 18
Melting point: 0oC
Specific heat: 4.18 Jgm-1K-1
Dielectric constant: 82
Dipole moment: 1.84 Deby
Shape: V shaped
Structure: Distorted tetrahedral
Bond angle: 104oC
State: Solid, liquid and gas
Number of lone pair of electrons: 2
Solvent property of water:
Water has high dielectric constant value (82). SO, it can dissolve most of the ionic compounds in it. So, water is also known as universal solvent. As it is highly polar, it can dissolve most of the compound which are not dissolved in non polar solvents.
Note:Any substance gets dissolved in water only when it can form hydrogen bond with water. Water is poor solvent for covalent or non-polar compounds.