Introduction to Ozone

Ozone is an important allotropes of oxygen. It is a triatomic molecule in which three oxygen atoms are covalently linked to each other. It is in gaseous state at room temperature.
The ozone layer lies in stratosphere which lies 10-50 kilometre from the surface of the earth. Naturally, ozone is formed from the oxygen molecules. When oxygen molecule splits into atom, it absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun. The oxygen then combine with O2 molecule to give ozone. The reaction involved are shown below:
$$\ce{O2->[hv]O + O}$$
$$\ce{O2 + O->O3}$$
In lower level of atmosphere, it is formed due to the decomposition of NO2 gas by sunlight. NO2 gas is formed at the atmosphere due to the oxidation of pollutant NO gas.
$$\ce{NO2->[hv]NO + O}$$

Structure of ozone:

Ozone is a V-shaped molecule having bond angle of 116.8o and bond length of 1.1278o. The presence of lone pair of electrons makes it more unstable and are represented by two forms. So, ozone shows the phenomenon of resonance.

Resonating structure of ozone.

In the figure, first two structures are the resonating structure and the third structure is the common of both and the resonance hybrid of ozone molecule.

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