Physical properties, chemical properties and uses of oxygen

Physical properties of oxygen:

– Oxygen is colorless, odourless and tasteless gas.
– It is pale blue color in liquid and solid state.
– It is slightly soluble in water.
– It is heavier than air.

Note: Metals like gold, silver, platinum can absorb oxygen at high temperature and expels it on cooling. This phenomenon is called spitting of silver.

Chemical properties of oxygen:

Combustibility: It does not burn itself but it supports for combustion. Oxygen requires high initial heating due to its high bond dissociation energy of 493.4KJmol between the O=O atoms.

Note:The presence of oxygen is must for burning anything. Nothing can get burnt without oxygen. Dissociation energy is the energy required to break old bonds when any chemical species undergo chemical reaction

Action with hydrogen: Oxygen when heated with hydrogen forms water.
$$\ce{2H2 + O2->[\Delta]2H2O}$$
Action with Nitrogen: Oxygen reacts with nitrogen at high temperature to give nitrogen dioxide.
$$\ce{N2 + O2->[{3000^{\circ}C}]2NO}$$
$$\ce{NO + O2->2NO2}$$

Action with carbon: Carbon when reacted with limited oxygen gives carbon monoxide and with excess oxygen, carbon gives carbon dioxide.

$$\ce{2C + $\underset{\text{limited}}{\ce{O2}}$ ->$\underset{\text{Carbon Monoxide}}{\ce{CO}}$}$$
$$\ce{2C + $\underset{\text{Excess}}{\ce{O2}}$ ->$\underset{\text{Carbon Monoxide}}{\ce{CO2}}$}$$

Action with ammonia: Oxygen reacts with ammonia to give nitric oxide and water. It is a reaction involved in manufacture of nitric acid in Ostwald’s process.
$$\ce{4NH3 + 5O2->[{800^{\circ}C}][\ce{Pt/MO}]4NO + 6H2O ^ }$$

Action with glucose: Glucose reacts with oxygen to give carbon dioxide, water and energy. This reaction takes place inside the human body.
$${\text{Glucose + Oxygen} \rightarrow \text{Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy}}$$

i.e., $$\ce{C6H12O6 + 6O2->6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy}$$

Action with metals:

Oxygen combines with many metals to form their respective oxides.

$$\ce{4Na + O2->[\text{Room temperature}]2NaO2}$$
$$\ce{2Na + O2->[{300^{\circ}C}]Na2O2}$$
$$\ce{4K + O2->2K2O}$$
$$\ce{2Mg + O2->[\Delta]2MgO}$$
$$\ce{2Zn + O2->[\Delta]2ZnO}$$
$$\ce{4Al + 3O2->[\Delta]Al2O3}$$

Action with iron: Oxygen when reacted with iron gives ferrous oxide. When excess of oxygen is passed, it gives ferrosoferic oxide and further addition of oxygen gives ferric oxide. To be discused
$$\ce{Fe + O2->[\Delta]\underset{Ferrous oxide}{FeO}}$$
$$\ce{6FeO + O2->[\Delta]\underset{Ferrosoferic oxide}{2Fe3O4}}$$
$$\ce{4Fe + 3O2->[\Delta]\underset{Ferric oxide}{2Fe3O3}}$$

When oxygen is reacted with oxygen in presence of water, rust is formed.
$$\ce{4Fe + 3O2 + 2H2O->\underset{Rust}{2Fe2O3.XH2O}}$$

Uses of oxygen:

– It is used for artificial respiration in hospitals, mountaineers in high altitude, miners and sea divers in the form of oxygen mask.
– It is used as aero fuel in rocket engines and planes.
– It is used for the generation of energy inside our body.
– It is used as strong oxidizing agent in laboratory.
– It is used by the plants for the process of photosynthesis.
– It is used in preparing different explosives.
– It is used as a germicides and insecticides.
– It is the main element for the formation of ozone.

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2 Responses to “Physical properties, chemical properties and uses of oxygen”

  1. Ahmeddinabdikheir

    good precise summary notes

  2. Ahmeddinabdikheir

    precise summarised good notes