Oxides and types of oxides

The binary compounds of oxygen with other elements are called oxides.
Classification of oxides: On the basis of chemical properties and structures, there are eight types of oxides.
1. Acidic oxides
2. Basic oxides
3. Neutral oxides
4. Amphoteric oxides
5. Peroxide
6. Super oxide
7. Sub oxide
8. Mixed oxides

1. Acidic oxide: Oxide of non metal which combine with water to form acid is called acidic oxide.
Example: SO2, CO2, NO2, SnO2, CrO3 etc.
$$\ce{SO2 + H2O->$\underset{\text{Sulphurous acid}}{\ce{H2SO3}}$}$$
$$\ce{SO3 + H2O->$\underset{\text{Sulphuric acid}}{\ce{H2SO4}}$}$$
$$\ce{SO2 + H2O->$\underset{\text{Sulphurous acid}}{\ce{H2SO3}}$}$$
$$\ce{CO2 + H2O->$\underset{\text{Carbonic acid}}{\ce{H2CO3}}$}$$
$$\ce{CrO3 + H2O->$\underset{\text{Chromic acid}}{\ce{H2CrO4}}$}$$
$$\ce{SnO2 + H2O->$\underset{\text{Stannic acid}}{\ce{H2SnO3}}$}$$

2. Basic oxides: Metallic oxide which combines with water to form bases is called basic oxide. Examples:
CaO, Na2O, BaO etc.
$$\ce{CaO + HCl->CaCl2 + H2O}$$
$$\ce{MgO + 2HCl->MgCl2 + H2O}$$

3. Neutral oxide: The oxide which shows neither acidic nor basic nature is called neutral oxide. For examples CO, H2O, N2O etc.

4. Amphoteric oxides: Those oxides which shows the property of both acidic and basic oxides are called amphoteric oxides. Examples: ZnO, Al2O3, PbO, SnO etc.
$$\ce{$\underset{\text{Oxide}}{\ce{ZnO}}$ + $\underset{\text{Acid}}{\ce{H2SO4}}$ ->$\underset{\text{Salt}}{\ce{ZnSO4}}$ + $\underset{\text{Water}}{\ce{H2O}}$}$$
$$\ce{$\underset{\text{Oxide}}{\ce{ZnO}}$ + $\underset{\text{Base}}{\ce{2NaOH}}$ ->$\underset{\text{Salt}}{\ce{Na2ZnO2}}$ + $\underset{\text{Water}}{\ce{H2O}}$}$$
$$\ce{$\underset{\text{Oxide}}{\ce{ Al2O3}}$ + $\underset{\text{Acid}}{\ce{6HCl}}$ ->$\underset{\text{Salt}}{\ce{2Al2O3}}$ + $\underset{\text{Water}}{\ce{3H2O}}$}$$
$$\ce{$\underset{\text{Oxide}}{\ce{ Al2O3}}$ + $\underset{\text{Base}}{\ce{ Al2O3}}$ ->$\underset{\text{Salt}}{\ce{2NaAlO2}}$ + $\underset{\text{Water}}{\ce{3H2O}}$}$$

5. Peroxides: Those oxides which contains peroxy linkage –O – O– and produces hydrogen peroxide(H2O2) are called peroxides. Examples: BaO2, Na2O2, Li2O2 etc.
$$\ce{BaO2 + 2HCl->BaCl2 + H2O2}$$

6. Super oxides: Those oxides which contain super oxide ions are called super oxides. Examples: KO2, RbO2 etc. These oxidation number of oxygen in these compounds is always 1/2.

7. Sub oxides: Those oxides which contain less number of oxygen then usual and has bonds between the same atoms of the elements besides having bonds between the elements and oxygen is called sub oxides. Examples: C2O3(O=C=C=C=O), Pb2O etc.

8. Mixed oxides: Those oxides which behaves as a mixture of two simpler oxides of the same elements is called mixed oxides. Examples: Red Lead (Pb3O4) contains two simple oxides PbO and PbO2 respectively.

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