Physical Properties, Chemical Properties and Uses of Hydrogen

Physical properties of hydrogen:

– Hydrogen is a colorless, odourless and tasteless gas which is sparingly soluble in water.
– Hydrogen is the lightest gas.
– Density: 0.8987 gram per litre
– Boiling point: -253oC
– Melting point: -259oC
– It can be liquefied and solidified at low temperature and high pressure.

Chemical properties:

1. Action with indicators: It does not show any reaction with litmus and hence is neutral towards litmus paper andother indicators.

2. Combustibility: Hydrogen is a inflammable and combustible gas. It is non supporter of combustion.
It gives pale blue flame in air or oxygen to form water. So, hydrogen is also called water gas.
$$\ce{2H2 + O2->H2O}$$
3. Dissociation: Hydrogen is quiet stable to its high bond energy. It dissociates into atomic hydrogen atoms when heated above1730 o.
$$\ce{ZnSO4->[{>1730^{\circ}C}] 2ZnO + SO2 + O2}$$
4. Reaction with halogen: Hydrogen does not react with halogens at ordinary temperature. But at high temperature in the presence of catalyst, hydrogen react to give their respective halides.
$$\ce{H2 + F2->2HF}$$
$$\ce{H2 + Cl2->2HCl}$$
$$\ce{H2 + Br2->2HBr}$$
$$\ce{H2 + I2->2Hl}$$

Note: The reactivity order of hydrogen with other halides is: F2 > Cl2 > Br2 > I2.

Reaction with metals: It reduces metal oxides to metals, when heated.
$$\ce{CuO + H2->[\Delta]Cu + H2O}$$
$$\ce{ZnO + H2->[\Delta]Zn + H2O}$$
$$\ce{PbO + H2->[\Delta]Pb + H2O}$$
$$\ce{Fe2O3 + 4H2->[\Delta]3Fe + 4H2O}$$

Action with carbon monoxide: Carbon monoxide reacts with hydrogen at about 430 oC and 200 atmospheric pressure in the presence of ZnO and Cr2O3 as a catalyst to give methanol.

$$\ce{CO2 + 2H2->[{430^{\circ}C}][\ce{ZnO/Cr2O3}] $\underset{\text{Methanol}}{\ce{CH3OH}}$$

Uses of hydrogen:

– Hydrogen is used for synthesis of ammonia in Haber’s process.
– Hydrogen is used for the manufacture of ethanol, HCl etc.
– It is used in hydrogenation of oil to produce artificial ghee.
– It is used as a reductant in metallurgical process.
– Liquid hydrogen is used as a fuel in rockets and missiles.
– It is used for filling balloons, study of atmosphere etc.

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3 Responses to “Physical Properties, Chemical Properties and Uses of Hydrogen”

  1. zara umar

    Enter your thoughts,comments,questions etc..why hydrogen is gas?

  2. MARCEL BABU

    it is useful article, thanks.

  3. zaharaddeen

    Enter your thoughts,comments,questions etc..how to use zinc granute, dilute, ho2 and water.