Isotopes are the chemical species having same atomic number bur different atomic mass number.
Hydrogen have three isotopes namely protium, deuterium and tritium.
1. Protium: It is the first isotope of hydrogen and has symbol 11H. It has one proton and one electron. It is the most abundant isotopes of hydrogen among all the hydrogen found in nature. It is non reactive and most stable form too.
Uses of protium:
– It is used for synthesis of ammonia in Haber’s process.
– It is used for the manufacture of ethanol, HCl etc.
– It is used in hydrogenation of oil to produce artificial ghee.
– It is used as a reductant in metallurgical process.
– It is used as a fuel in rockets and missiles.
– It is used for filling balloons, study of atmosphere etc.
Note: The uses of ordinary hydrogen and protium are same.
2. Deuterium: It is the second isotope of hydrogen and has symbol 21H or D. It has one proton and one electron and one neutron. It is the second most abundant isotopes of hydrogen among all the hydrogen found in nature. It is non reactive and stable form too.
The main application of deuterium is: It is extensively used as moderator in nuclear reactors for the transformation of nuclear reaction.
Note: Since all the isotopes of hydrogen have same electronic configuration, they have similar chemical properties.
3. Tritium: It is the third isotope of hydrogen. It is not found in free state in nature. It is also represented by 31H or T. It has one proton, two neutrons and one electron. It is highly radioactive in nature.
Tritium is used in nuclear fusion reaction to liberate large amount of heat in nuclear bombs and weapons.